Fasting On Jumu3ah (Friday):
Abu Hurayrah (may Allaah be pleased with him) that he said: “I heard the Prophet sallAllaahu 3Alayhi wa sallam say:
“None of you should fast on a Friday unless he fasts the day before or the day after”.’ (1)
Fasting on 3Arafah if It Coincides with Friday:
Shaykh 3Abdul-3Azeez bin 3Abdullaah Aal ash-Shaykh was asked the following question:
Q: If the day of 3Arafah (the 9th of Dhul-Hijjah) was to coincide with Friday is it permissible to single it out with fasting (i.e. by not fasting a day along with it)? May Allaah reward you with good.
Fasting Friday is forbidden if the intent is the day of Friday itself; i.e. singling out the day of Friday; so one must fast a day before it or a day after it.
As for it (Friday) coinciding with a day that is obligatory to fast, or (if Friday coincided) with fasting the six days of Shawwaal, or with fasting the 9th or 10th day of Muharram, or with fasting the day of 3Arafah, then there is nothing to prevent him from that (fasting Friday by itself); as long as he is not in a state of Ihraam performing Hajj. ” (2)
Shaykh ibn Baz (rahimahullaah) was asked:
Q: The day of 3Arafah came on Friday, and I fasted on Friday which was the day of 3Arafah, but I did not fast on Thursday; so is there any sin upon me?
We hope there is no sin upon you. This is because you did not intend to single out this day for fasting; rather you only fasted this day because it was the day of 3Arafah.
But if you would have fasted Thursday along with it, it would have been safer and less doubtful.
This is because the Messenger sallAllaahu 3Alayhi wa sallam prohibited singling out Friday for fasting as it relates to the one observing and optional fast. And you were observing an optional fast. Therefore if you would have fasted Thursday along with it, with would have been safer and less doubtful even if your intention was to fast because it was 3Arafah.
But for the believer to investigate so he can be in agreement with the commands of the Prophet sallAllaahu 3Alayhi wa sallam is safer and less doubtful.
As for fasting (Friday) intending to do so because it is a virtuous day, then this is not permissible because the Messenger prohibited that.
But if you fast this day because it is the day of 3Arafah then we hope there will be nothing upon you. But if the person takes precaution and fast on Thursday along with Friday, this will be safer. (3)
The Permanent Committee for Scholarly Research and Iftaa’ was asked:
Q: Is it permissible to observe Sawm on the Day of 3Arafah alone if it happens to be on a Friday? Or, should a person observe Sawm on a day preceding or succeeding it, bearing in mind that the former case conflicts with the Hadeeth prohibiting the observance of Sawm on Friday alone?
It is permissible to observe Sawm on the Day of 3Arafah alone if it happens to be on a Friday without observing Sawm on a day preceding or succeeding it as the Prophet sallAllaahu 3Alayhi wa sallam is authentically reported to have urged people to observe Sawm on this day highlighting its superiority and the great reward for observing Sawm on it.
The Prophet sallAllaahu 3Alayhi wa sallam said: “Fasting the Day of 3Arafah forgives the sins of two years: the previous and the following…”
This Hadeeth specifies the general meaning of the Hadeeth that reads: “None of you should fast on Friday unless he fasts a day before or after it”.
Accordingly, the general prohibition understood from this Hadeeth should be understood in the context of observing Sawm on Friday for it merely being Friday.
However, observing Sawm on Friday for another purpose recommended by Shari3ah is permissible and not prohibited even if Sawm is observed on Friday alone. If Sawm is observed on a day preceding or succeeding it, it will be a more precautionary implementation of the two Hadeeths which will have the effect of the increase of the reward. (4)
Ibn Hajar said in Fath Al-Baari:
(after mentioning the prohibition of singling out Jumu3ah for fasting)
“Excluded from this prohibition is one who fasts the day before or after, or if it coincides with days that he habitually fasts, such as one who fasts al-Ayyaam al-Beed (the 13th, 14th and 15th of each hijri month), or who has the habit of fasting a specific day such as the Day of 3Arafah, and it coincides with a Friday…. (5)
Similarly, if 3Ashoorah or 3Arafah coincides with a Friday, he may fast, because his intention is to fast 3Ashoorah or 3Arafah, not to fast on a Friday. (6)
Compiled by TowardsHuda