Prophet sallAllaahu 3Alayhi wa sallam said:
For fasting the day of 3Aashooraa’, I hope that Allaah will accept it as expiation for the year that went before.” (1)
Mustahabb (encouraged) to fast Taasoo3aa’ with 3Aashooraa’:
3Abd-Allaah ibn 3Abbaas radi Allaahu 3Anhuma said: “When the Messenger of Allaah sallAllaahu 3Alayhi wa sallam fasted on 3Aashooraa’ and commanded the Muslims to fast as well, they said, ‘O Messenger of Allaah, it is a day that is venerated by the Jews and Christians’.
The Messenger of Allaah sallAllaahu 3Alayhi wa sallam said:
If I live to see the next year, in-shaa’-Allaah, we will fast on the ninth day too.’
But it so happened that the Messenger of Allaah sallAllaahu 3Alayhi wa sallam passed away before the next year came.” (2)
Al-Shaafa3ee and his companions, Ahmad, Ishaaq and others said:
It is mustahabb [recommended] to fast both the ninth and the tenth, because the Prophet sallAllaahu 3Alayhi wa sallam fasted the tenth and intended to fast the ninth.
Wisdom Behind Fasting Taasoo3aa’ with 3Aashooraa’
If one were to ask, what is the wisdom behind fasting the ninth as well as the tenth? The answer is:
Al-Nawawi (may Allaah have mercy on him) said:
The scholars among our companions and others said that there are several reasons for recommending fasting on the ninth day (Taasoo3aa’):
1. The intention behind it is to be different from the Jews who limit their fasting to the tenth day. This was narrated from Ibn 3Abbaas.
2. The intention was to join the fast of 3Aashooraa to another day, just as it is not allowed to fast on a Friday on its own [but it is allowed if one fasts the day before or the day after as well].
3. The idea is to be on the safe side and make sure one is fasting on the tenth, in case the moon sighting was not accurate and what people think is the ninth is actually the tenth.
The strongest of these reasons is in order to be different from the People of the Book.
Shaykh al-Islaam Ibn Taymiyah said:
The Prophet sallAllaahu 3Alayhi wa sallam forbade resembling the People of the Book in many ahaadeeth. For example, he said concerning 3Aashooraa: “If I live until next year I will certainly fast the ninth.” (3)
Ibn Hajar (may Allaah have mercy on him) said, commenting on the hadeeth “If I live until next year I will certainly fast the ninth”:
His concern to fast the ninth may be understood as meaning that he would not limit himself to that, rather that he would add it to the tenth, either to be on the safe side, or to be different from the Jews and Christians, which is more likely to be correct; this is what may be understood from some of the reports narrated by Muslim.” (4)
Based on this, there are different ways of fasting 3Aashooraa, the least of which is to fast the tenth only, but it is better to fast the ninth as well. The more one fasts in Muharram, the better.
Fasting Only On the Day of 3Aashooraa’:
Shaykh al-Islaam said:
Fasting on the day of 3Aashoraa’ is an expiation for a year, and it is not makrooh to fast only that day”. (5)
Ibn Hajar al-Haytami said:
There is nothing wrong with fasting only on 3Aashooraa’.” (6)
The Permanent Committee for Islaamic Research and Fataawa said:
It is permissible to fast the day of 3Aashooraa’. (tenth day of Muharram) just one day, however, it is better to fast the day before it or the day after it (also)”. (7)
Related Posts:References: (1) Saheeh Muslim (2) Saheeh Muslim, 1916. (3) Al-Fataawa al-Kubra, part 6 (4) Fath al-Baari, 4/245 Read More: http://islamqa.com/en/ref/21785 (5) Al-Fataawa al-Kubra, part 5 (6) In Tuhfat al-Muhtaaj: part 3, Baab Sawm al-Tatawwu’ (7) Fataawa al-Lajnah ad-Daa.imah lil-Buhooth al-‘3lmiyyah wal-Iftaa. – Volume 10, Page 401, Fatwa No.13700