It was reported from Abu Qataadah (may Allaah be pleased with him) that the Messenger of Allaah sallAllaahu 3Alayhi wa sallam was asked about fasting on the Day of 3Arafah. He said, “It expiates for the sins of the previous year and of the coming year.” (1)
Shaykh Ibn 3Uthaymeen (may Allaah have mercy on him) was asked: What is the ruling on fasting the day of 3Arafah for non-pilgrims and pilgrims?
He replied: “Fasting on the day of 3Arafah for non-pilgrims is a confirmed Sunnah. The Messenger of Allaah sallAllaahu 3Alayhi wa sallam was asked about fasting on the day of 3Arafah and he said: “I ask Allaah that it may expiate for (the sins of) the year that comes before it and the year that comes after it”. According to another report he said: “It expiates for the past and coming years.”
As for the pilgrim, it is not Sunnah for him to fast on the day of 3Arafah, because the Prophet sallAllaahu 3Alayhi wa sallam did not fast on the day of 3Arafah during the Farewell Pilgrimage. In Saheeh al-Bukhaaree it is narrated from Maymoonah (may Allaah be pleased with her) that the people were not sure whether the Prophet sallAllaahu 3Alayhi wa sallam was fasting on the day of 3Arafah, so she sent him some milk when he was standing in 3Arafah, and he drank it whilst the people were looking on. ” (2)
Fasting on Day of 3Arafah for Different Moon Sighting Countries
Shaykh Ibn 3Uthaymeen (may Allaah have mercy on him) was asked: what if the day of 3Arafah is different because of the moon being sighted at different times in different countries? Should we fast according to the moon sighting in the country where we are or according to the moon sighting in al-Haramayn (the two Holy Sanctuaries)?
He replied: “This is based on a difference of opinion among the scholars: Is there only one moon sighting for the whole world or does it vary according to when the moon rises in different places?
The correct view is that it varies according to when the moon rises in different places.
For example, if the moon is sighted in Makkah, and today is the ninth, and it is sighted elsewhere one day before Makkah, and the day of 3Arafah in Makkah is the tenth for them, it is not permissible for them to fast on this day because it is 3Eid.
Similarly if it so happens that they sight the moon after Makkah, and the 9th in Makkah is the 8th for them, then they should fast the day that is the 9th for them, which is the 10th in Makkah. This is the correct view, because the Prophet sallAllaahu 3alayhi wa sallam said:“When you see it (the new moon) fast and when you see it break your fast.”
Those who did not see the moon in their own location have not seen it. Just as people are unanimously agreed that the times for dawn and sunset vary according to their own location, so too the months are also worked out by location, just like the daily timings.(3)
Best Du3aa’ on the Day of 3Arafah
It was narrated from 3AbdAllaah ibn 3Amr ibn al-3Aas (may Allaah be pleased with him) that the Prophet sallAllaahu 3alayhi wa sallam said:
“The best of du3aa’ is du3aa’ on the day of 3Arafah, and the best that I and the Prophets before me said is:
لا إله إلا الله وحده لا شريك له ، له الملك ، وله الحمد ، وهو على كل شيء قدير
‘Laa ilaaha ill-Allaah wahdahu la shareeka lah, lahul-mulk wa lahul-hamd wa huwa 3ala kulli shay’in qadeer’
(There is no god but Allaah alone, with no partner or associate; His is the dominion, to Him be praise, and He has power over all things).” (4)
Commenting on the Hadeeth, Ibn 3Abdul-Barr (rahimahullah) said, “The Hadeeth stands as evidence that the supplications on the Day of 3Arafah are most probably answered and that the best of remembrance of Allaah is to say, ‘There is none worthy of worship except Allaah’.” (5)
It was narrated from Talhah ibn 3Ubayd ibn Kurayz in a mursal report: “The best of du3aa’ is du3aa’ on the day of 3Arafah.” (6).
The scholars differed concerning this virtue of du3aa’ on the day of 3Arafah, whether it applies only to those who are in 3Arafah or it includes other places. The more correct view is that it is general and that the virtue is connected to the day, but undoubtedly those who are in 3Arafah have combined the virtue of the place with the virtue of the time.
Al-Baaji (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: “The words ‘the best of du3aa’ is on the day of 3Arafah’ mean the dhikr with the greatest blessing, the greatest reward and that which is most likely to be answered. It may be interpreted as referring to pilgrims only, because the meaning of du3aa’ on the day of 3Arafah is very true in their case, and applies especially to them. But if the day of 3Arafah is regarded in general terms, it is described as such because of the pilgrims being there. And Allaah knows best”. (7)
The scholars said that there are two types of Takbeer:
First: which is not limited to a specific time, and it is Sunnah to say it all the time, morning and evening, before prayer and after prayer, at all times. It starts with the start of the month of Dhul-Hijjah and lasts until the last day of Tashreeq.
Second: The Takbeer restricted to a specific time, which is prescribed after prayers. It starts from Fajr on the day of 3Arafah and lasts until the sun sets on the last day of the days of Tashreeq, in addition to the takbeer that may be recited at any time.
So when a person says the tasleem at the end of the obligatory prayer, he should pray for forgiveness (by saying Astaghfir-Allaah) three times, and say:“Allaahumma anta al-salaam wa minka al-salaam, tabaarakta yaa dhaa’l-jalaali wa’l-ikraam (“O Allaah, You are al-Salaam [the One Who is free from all defects and deficiencies), and from You is all peace, blessed are You, O possessor of majesty and honour)”, then start the takbeer. (8)
It was narrated that the Prophet sallAllaahu 3alayhi wa sallam and a group of the Sahaabah (may Allaah be pleased with them) used to recite Takbeer following each of the five prayers from Fajr on the day of 3Arafah until 3Asr on the 13th day of Dhu’l-Hijjah. (9)
Compiled by towardshuda